The pyramids, Tutankhamen’s gold, the massive temples of Luxor and Karnak… the civilization of ancient Egypt has left us an incredible legacy, yet of all of these impressive monuments and treasures, none has a more personal effect on the viewer than the Fayum mummy portraits.
During the Graeco-Roman period, after Egypt had fallen first to Alexander the Great and then to the Romans, the old traditions continued. Temples were still built, priests still wrote in hieroglyphics, and the wealthy were still mummified in order to guarantee their place in the afterlife.
The new rulers of Egypt took on some local customs. They often chose to be mummified in the Egyptian fashion but added the touch of putting a portrait of the deceased over the wrappings covering the face. Painted on thin slats of wood, they were part of a trend called panel painting, considered by Classical writers to be one of the highest forms of art.
Panel paintings were hung in houses and public buildings all over the Greek and Roman world. Two thousand years of damp, mold, and fire destroyed all of them except those buried in the preserving sands of Egypt, so these mummy portraits give us a look at what would otherwise be a lost art. Panel painting was hugely popular in its day and later influenced the Coptic and Byzantine icons of the Middle Ages.
Looking at a mummy portrait brings you face to face with a real person from the past, like this image of a priest courtesy user Eloquence via Wikimedia Commons. Painted around 140-160 AD, it’s realistic enough that we’d know him if he passed us on the street. The portraits vary in quality, but each gives us an individualistic look at a man or woman or child, often with fascinating details like jewelry or hairstyles.
Roman boy, 2nd century AD, on display at the Met. He looks like a younger version of my brother-in-law! Isarous of Hawara, late 1st century this woman’s name, Isidora (Second-century woman, at the LouvreTwo child portraits, not as realistic but still charming, Mummy portrait still attached to the mummy, at Royal Museum of Scotland.
Mummy portraits appeared around the first century BC and continued in fashion for about 300 years. Many were found in the Fayum, an oasis west of modern Cairo that was a popular place to be buried, but examples have been found all over Egypt.